The origins of urban planning can be traced back to the 19th century public health interventions intended to reduce the risks of epidemics.
The period known as Suburban Domination in the history of Canadian cities is from 1975 to the present. It coincides with the political reform movement that swept the country in the early 70s.
City Density Gradient has flattened and become more uneven over the century.
Exit Ramp Economy refers to an expressway exit in which any location within a 15 Minute Drive from this exit offers adequate accessibility for housing.
Low-density land-use with auto-based transportation and consumerist lifestyles in suburban landscapes are the norm.
All new residential subdivisions in the outer suburbs perpetuate, even escalate, unsustainable patterns.
Residents living in communities designed to new urbanism standards generate just as many auto-based trips as are found in conventional suburbia. The fact that cars are parked in backplanes in New Urbanism neighborhoods has not reduced their use.Chapter 2.
One third the population of Canada lives in the three largest CMA’s.
In US, 50% of Americans live in suburbs and outnumber those in the central city by two to one. In Canada 38% live in suburbs and outnumber those in the central city by 1.5 to one.
Growth of the city is related to its place in the international economic system and the economic performance of the regional hinterland. CMAs in Western Canada and southern Ontario are growing while those in QuÃ©bec and the Maritimes are not.
Vancouver is the Canadian CMA with the highest percentage of visible minority 36.9 versus Toronto 36.8. Toronto and Vancouver attracted 61% of all immigrants in the 1990s. Canada admits immigrates at three times the rate of the US.
20% of all visible minorities in Canada live in Vancouver.
US cities have greater income disparity between city and suburb.
Transfer payments were once the mirror image of the relationship between Canada’s core and periphery. With globalization this relationship has been disturbed.
Toronto and Vancouver should grow by 50% by 2026. MontrÃ©al will grow 3%, Calgary/Edmonton 30%, Ottawa 34%, Halifax 24%, rural areas -5%.
Canadian cities are more public in their nature, US cities are more private. US has strong national commitment to individualism. There is protection of private property rights under the U.S. Constitution. US relies on private mechanisms and individual user fees for providing infrastructure and goods and services. Emphasis on home ownership — especially single detached residence. Power of local autonomy in government evidenced by many small municipalities. Canadian cities have greater emphasis on collectivity and greater trust in confidence of government and their bureaucracies. And in US state intervention supports private consumption and facilitates private gain witnessed freeways whereas Canada state intervention has greater support for public consumption and gain.
80% of Canadian population lives in urban places [greater than 10,000].
Ecumene refers to areas settled and exploited by a countries labor force.
The Windsor — QuÃ©bec City corridor is most intense urban concentration in Canada with 17 million people or approximately half the country.
Producing manufactured goods and financial and producers services is any mark of a mature urban area.
The core — periphery distinctiveness of Canada’s urban system differentiates cities that serve the primary sector from those that produce manufactured goods.
There are three systems of connections — economic, demographic and political.
Air travel reveals patterns of interactions and the essential geographic features of the Canadian urban system. Victoria connects to Vancouver. Edmonton connects to Calgary. St. John’s, Halifax, St. John, Winnipeg are linked more strongly to Toronto, not to MontrÃ©al.
Economic subsystem is most open to external influences and variations. The demographic subsystem measures flows of people and information. There is a slow population reaction to economic descent. High-growth areas must rely on migration or immigration. The political subsystem refers to the movement of political influence and the exchange of money within and among political jurisdictions. These connections are seldom international. Federal policies support declining regions by taxing areas of growth — subsidization of geography. Some say these prevent the national economy from achieving its full potential.
The most significant economic upswing has been fueled by specialized postindustrial activities. Producer — service industries like biomedical research, global financial services, and cultural and educational activities are very important.
If changes in the world economy persists, it might be necessary to take a continental or even global, rather than national, approach.
Air travel linkages between Canada and the United States are only 1/10 the magnitude of flights within Canada for cities of comparable size and distance apart.
Without the national border the Canadian urban system would disappear as a distinct entity and blend into a larger North American system.
The first order global cities are New York and London. The second order a cities include Paris, Los Angeles, and Chicago.
Federal transfer system was once the mere image of the spending that once supported Canada’s core/periphery space economy. For example, Toronto corporations made money from serving the Atlantic Canada market and then returned via taxes money to the East Coast. Globalized nation has disturbed this relationship. The largest cities view themselves as income generating magnets for the new economy.
By 2026 Vancouver will have 3 million, Toronto will have 7 million and MontrÃ©al will have 3.5 million. Calgary will have one .million while Edmonton will have one million. Ottawa will have 1.4 million.
Kelowna will have an exceptionally large population increase at 270,000 people by 2026 — almost twice the number of 2001 population.
in the 1980s, global cities had emerged as sites of capital accumulation and creation, headquarters of transnational corporations, homes to concentrations of professional, producer and other advanced services.
Vancouver is considered the Canadian city that has experienced the greatest globally induced transformation — from urban village to world city.
The postindustrial economy emphasizes advanced services, knowledge, and innovation. Canada is privileged by the fact that English is the lingua franca of globalization.
The new economy has concentrated management and professional services in cities. The simultaneously explosive demand for low-wage services to support both business enterprise and growing numbers of increasingly affluent, professional class, dual wage households has polarized employment.
Creativity has replaced raw materials or natural harbors as the crucial wellspring of economic growth.
Some see the breakup of Canada — national disintegration in the face of global integration. Some believe globalize Asian and be use of advanced telecommunication technology have meant the end of geography. The growth of transnational corporations might lead to the end of the nationstate and its replacement by a series of globally connected region states.
The Toronto area may have grounds to become a city/province along the lines of the German city lander.
The 1970s marked the attraction of the inner city to the middle class in gentrifying neighborhoods.
The new middle-class possessed more intellectual than financial capital and moved to the inner city to take advantage of deflated central city real estate. People sought the convivial city where there was passed it to die for. Former industrial or brownfield sites provided space for the new growth.
The entrepreneurial agenda required the city compete to attract new business and residents by ‘re-placing’ the obsolescent landscape of the modern city.
Make events showcase competitive cities to the world as open for business.
Entrepreneurialism promotes fiscal austerity and corporate management principles for a business friendly globally connected city. Difference agenda advances ‘place’ based initiatives and cultural projects such as loft conversions, unique annual festivals, distinctive historic and waterfront districts, and multiculturalism. Revanchist policies target crime and safety to produce good places to live work and invest.
Occupationally induced polarization has been observed throughout the world. Suburbs built between 1946 in 1970 18 new home for the poor. Newer suburbs were more homogeneously above average in household income. Emergence of ethnoburps.
Toronto and Vancouver maintain a guise of participatory decision-making where embourgeoisement marries well heeled citizens to municipal administrators.
Greenpeace on Canada’s Green party were established in Vancouver.
By 1990 Vancouver’s office district was proportionally one of the largest in all of North America.
Vancouver’s International Finance Center is able to exempt urban megaprojects from some provincial and federal taxes.
Vancouver has taken on a sanitized aesthetic driven by conspicuous consumption become a highly contrived ideologically control and economically commodified reality
As opposed to Toronto, Vancouver creating a ‘city of difference’ achieved through middle-class support for urban design and for municipal platforms that stop freeways and promote neighborhoods.
Vancouver lacks national and international corporate strength raising doubts about global status.